Thừa Vitamins

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Getting too little of essential micronutrients can be harmful to your health, especially over the long haul. But getting too much can have equally worrisome

e ects, many of which show up more swi ly. Most troublesome are excesses of fat-soluble vitamins from supplements, which the body may stockpile to the point of reaching toxic doses. e ones most likely to cause trouble are vitamins A, E, and K. (D is also fat-soluble, but an excess of D doesn’t tend to cause problems.)

High doses of supplements—usually from taking individual vitamin and mineral supplements in addi- tion to a powerful multivitamin—are o en at fault. It’s much harder to get dangerous amounts of micronu- trients from food, partly because of the body’s natu- ral checks and balances. When iron stores are full, for example, your body normally absorbs less iron from food unless a genetic disorder or other problem inter- feres. Your body also slows the conversion of beta carotene to vitamin A when it already has enough vitamin A from supplements or food sources. But it is still possible to overdo it.

Many consumers are spurred to take excessive supplement doses by overenthusiastic news stories on the potential bene ts of certain vitamins and miner- als. Remember, though, that the good news from the latest study may be refuted by other studies. Promis- ing test-tube and animal studies o en don’t pan out in people. And certain types of human studies o er more de nitive information than others (see “Making sense of scienti c studies,” page 14). Sometimes, excit- ing results from initial observational studies aren’t con rmed by randomized controlled trials, which are considered the gold standard of research. And even these studies o en have their limitations.

Don’t take more than the recommended dose of any micronutrient through supplements unless there is a good reason to do so, such as speci c advice from your doctor. It is especially important to avoid taking too much of the following vitamins and minerals.

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Vitamin A

Đang cập nhật .... It can be easy to ingest more than 10,000 IU of vitamin A (more than three times the amount recommended for men and four times the amount recommended for women) if you eat a lot of forti ed cereal and liver in addition to taking a multivitamin containing retinol or retinyl compounds every day. Plenty of evidence from earlier research shows that too much vitamin A can harm bones. Excess vitamin A can have other e ects as well. Birth defects occur more o en when pregnant women take more than 10,000 IU of supplemental vitamin…

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Vitamin E

Đang cập nhật... Despite evidence that vitamin E supplements don’t help and may even be harmful (see “Vitamin E,” page 26), some people still take these supplements. If you take more than 800 mg per day, you risk side e ects such as bleeding, headache, fatigue, and blurred vision. To be on the safe side, talk with your doc- tor before taking more than the RDA for vitamin E to avoid increasing your risk of bleeding, espe- cially if you also take the blood thinner warfarin (Coumadin).

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Vitamin K

Đang cập nhật... Because vitamin K can in uence blood clotting, if you take warfarin it’s important to keep your vitamin K intake consistent from day to day. Discuss this with your doctor if you are taking this medication.

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Canxi cho nam giới

Đang cập nhật.... ere is some evidence that a high intake of calcium may increase the risk of prostate cancer and may also increase heart attack risk, though no randomized trials have specically tested the latter. One study found that men who consumed more than 2,000 mg of calcium daily were ve times as likely to develop metastatic prostate cancer as those who consumed less than 500 mg of calcium per day. Another large epidemiological study found that intake of more than 1,500 mg of cal- cium per day might increase the risk of aggressive and fatal prostate cancer, but…

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Sắt

ĐAng cập nhật... Hemochromatosis is the medical term for too much iron in the body. A common genetic glitch called hereditary hemochromatosis leaves about 1.5 mil- lion Americans prone to a glut of iron, although not automatically doomed to it. Large doses of iron sup- plements, multiple blood transfusions, drinking too much alcohol, and some rare metabolic disorders can also trigger an iron overload, which can damage body tissues and raise risks for infection, heart disease, liver cancer, and arthritis over time. In addition, taking high doses of vitamin C allows your body to absorb more iron than it normally…

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Kẽm

Đang cập nhật... Getting enough but not too much of the trace mineral zinc is a bit of a high-wire act. e RDA for zinc is 8 mg for women and 11 mg for men. e Institute of Medicine lists the upper limit for zinc as 40 mg for women and men. Yet levels not much higher than 15 mg can trigger side e ects, such as a depressed immune system, poor healing, hair loss, and inter- ference with the ability to taste and smell. at’s why some experts suggest that it’s best to get zinc from food sources rather…

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  • Thừa Kẽm
  • Thừa Kẽm
  • Đang cập nhật... Getting enough but not too much of the trace mineral zinc is…
  • Thừa Sắt
  • Thừa Sắt
  • ĐAng cập nhật... Hemochromatosis is the medical term for too much iron in the body.…
  • Thừa Vitamins K
  • Thừa Vitamins K
  • Đang cập nhật... Because vitamin K can in uence blood clotting, if you take warfarin…
  • Thừa Vitamins E
  • Thừa Vitamins E
  • Đang cập nhật... Despite evidence that vitamin E supplements don’t help and may even be…
  • Thừa Vitamins A
  • Thừa Vitamins A
  • Đang cập nhật .... It can be easy to ingest more than 10,000 IU of…
  • Thừa Vitamins
  • Thừa Vitamins
  • Đang cập nhật.... Getting too little of essential micronutrients can be harmful to your health,…

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