Thiếu vitamins và dùng thuốc
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Some digestive diseases can block absorption of vita- min B12. Cystic brosis, chronic liver disease, and
short-bowel syndrome can impair the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamin E. Liver disease, kidney disease, or malabsorption maladies can trig- ger a de ciency of vitamin K, which is essential for blood clotting and may help keep bones healthy. A lack of stomach acid—which o en occurs among the elderly—makes it hard to absorb calcium and vitamin B12 from food. Celiac disease, in ammatory bowel dis- ease, and other conditions that a ect the small intestine can interfere with vitamin D absorption. In addition, medications for many health conditions can interfere with the absorption of some vitamins and minerals ( Xem thêm “Medications and micronutrients,”)